I am A Man of Letters. I’ve been reading lately, and I have found some words I would like to share. Today, The Meditations by Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius was born in the year 121 and died in 180. Here are The Meditations Book One, Parts One through Sixteen.
From my grandfather Verus I learned good morals and the government of my temper.
From the reputation and remembrance of my father, modesty and a manly character.
From my mother, piety and beneficence, and abstinence, not only from evil deeds, but even from evil thoughts. Further, simplicity in my way of living, far removed from the habits of the rich.
From my great-grandfather, not to frequent public schools, and to have had good teachers at home, and to know that on such things a man should spend liberally.
From my governor, to be neither of the green nor of the blue party at the games in the Circus, nor a partisan either of the Parmularius or the Scutarius at the gladiators’ fights. From him too I learned endurance of labor, and to want little, and to work with my own hands, and not to meddle with other people’s affairs, and not to be ready to listen to slander.
From Diognetus, not to busy myself about trifling things, and not to give credit to what was said by miracle-workers and jugglers about incantations and the driving away of daemons and such things. Not to breed quails [for fighting], nor to give myself up passionately to such things. To endure freedom of speech. To become intimate with philosophy. To hear first Bacchius, then Tandasis and Marcianus. To have written dialogues in my youth. And to have desired a plank bed and skin, and whatever else of the kind belongs to the Grecian discipline.
From Rusticus I received the impression that my character required improvement and discipline. From him I learned not to be led astray to sophistic emulation, nor to writing on speculative matters, nor to delivering little hortatory orations, nor to showing myself off as a man who practices much discipline, or does benevolent acts in order to make a display. To abstain from rhetoric, and poetry, and fine writing. Not to walk about in the house in my outdoor clothes, nor to do other things of the kind. To write my letters with simplicity, like the letter which Rusticus wrote from Sinuessa to my mother. With respect to those who have offended me by words, or done me wrong, to be easily disposed to be pacified and reconciled, as soon as they have shown a readiness to be reconciled. To read carefully, and not to be satisfied with a superficial understanding of a book, nor hastily to give my assent to those who talk overmuch. I am indebted to him for being acquainted with the Discourses of Epictetus, which he communicated to me out of his own collection.
From Apollonius I learned freedom of will and undeviating steadiness of purpose. To look to nothing else, not even for a moment, except to reason. To be always the same, in sharp pains, on the occasion of the loss of a child, and in long illness. To see clearly in a living example that the same man can be both most resolute and yielding, and not peevish in giving his instruction. To have had before my eyes a man who clearly considered his experience and his skill in expounding philosophical principles as the smallest of his merits. From him I learned how to receive from friends what are esteemed favors, without being either humbled by them or letting them pass unnoticed.
From Sextus, a benevolent disposition, and the example of a family governed in a fatherly manner, and the idea of living conformably to nature. Gravity without affectation, and to look carefully after the interests of friends, and to tolerate ignorant persons, and those who form opinions without consideration. He had the power of readily accommodating himself to all, so that dialog with him was more agreeable than any flattery, and at the same time he was most highly venerated by those who associated with him. He had the faculty both of discovering and ordering, in an intelligent and methodical way, the principles necessary for life. He never showed anger or any other passion, but was entirely free from passion, and also most affectionate. And he could express approbation without noisy display, and he possessed much knowledge without ostentation.
From Alexander the grammarian, to refrain from fault-finding, and not in a reproachful way to chide those who uttered any barbarous or solecistic or strange-sounding expression, but dexterously to introduce the very expression which ought to have been used, and in the way of answer or giving confirmation, or joining in an inquiry about the thing itself, not about the word, or by some other fit suggestion.
From Fronto I learned to observe what envy and duplicity and hypocrisy are in a tyrant, and that generally those among us who are called Patricians are rather deficient in paternal affection.
From Alexander the Platonic, not frequently nor without necessity to say to any one, or to write in a letter, that I have no leisure. Nor continually to excuse the neglect of duties required by our relation to those with whom we live, by alleging urgent occupations.
From Catulus, not to be indifferent when a friend finds fault, even if he should find fault without reason, but to try to restore him to his usual disposition. To be ready to speak well of teachers, as it is reported of Domitius and Athenodotus. And to love my children truly.
From my brother Severus, to love my kin, and to love truth, and to love justice. Through him I learned to know Thrasea, Helvidius, Cato, Dion, Brutus. From him I received the idea of a polity in which there is the same law for all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed. I learned from him also consistency and undeviating steadiness in my regard for philosophy, and a disposition to do good, and to give to others readily, and to cherish good hopes, and to believe that I am loved by my friends. In him I observed no concealment of his opinions with respect to those whom he condemned, and that his friends had no need to conjecture what he wished or did not wish, but it was quite plain.
From Maximus I learned self-government, and not to be led aside by anything. Cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness. A just admixture in the moral character of sweetness and dignity, and to do what was set before me without complaining. I observed that everybody believed that he thought as he spoke, and that in all that he did he never had any bad intention. He never showed amazement or surprise, and was never in a hurry, and never put off doing a thing, nor was perplexed nor dejected, nor did he ever laugh to disguise his vexation, nor, on the other hand, was he ever passionate or suspicious. He was accustomed to do acts of beneficence, and was ready to forgive, and was free from all falsehood. He presented the appearance of a man who could not be diverted from right, rather than of a man who had been improved. I observed, too, that no man could ever think that he was despised by Maximus, or ever venture to think himself a better man. He had also the art of being humorous in an agreeable way.
In my father I observed mildness of temper, and unchangeable resolution in the things which he had determined after due deliberation. No vain-glory in those things which men call honors. A love of labor and perseverance. A readiness to listen to those who had anything to propose for the common weal. Undeviating firmness in giving to every man according to his deserving. A knowledge derived from experience of the occasions for vigorous action and for remission. I observed that he had overcome all passion for boys. He considered himself no more than any other citizen. He released his friends from all obligation to sup with him or to attend him of necessity when he went abroad, and those who had failed to accompany him, by reason of any urgent circumstances, always found him the same. I observed, too, his habit of careful inquiry in all matters of deliberation, and his persistency, and that he never stopped his investigation through being satisfied with appearances which first present themselves. His disposition was to keep his friends, and not to be soon tired of them, nor yet to be extravagant in his affection. To be satisfied on all occasions, and cheerful. To foresee things a long way off, and to provide for the smallest without display. To stop immediately popular applause and all flattery. To be ever watchful over the things which were necessary for the administration of the Empire, and to be a good manager of the expenditure, and patiently to endure the blame which he got for such conduct.
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Until I return, I am… A Man of Letters.